5 Universal Precaution Measures to Prevent HIV Transmission

Universal precautions are safety measures that are followed for the prevention of the spread of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and other bloodborne pathogens. All samples of blood and body fluids are to be considered infectious while dealing with them. In fact, it was after the discovery of HIV that universal precautions became known to be extremely important in a healthcare setting.

As an employer, it is a major responsibility to ensure that all your health care workers are adhering to universal precautions. While treating patients of HIV or AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Virus), all employees must have an open mind and focus on leaving all prejudices behind, following universal precautions as usual. There is no room for mistakes for such cases.

Here are five measures to prevent the  transmission  of HIV infections:

• Personal Protective Equipment: Your health care employees must be taught to always use protective clothing when handling HIV/AIDS patients. Protective gear like face masks, gowns, gloves and goggles must be used during occasions where chances of accidental splashing of blood and fluids are high. It is essential to change gloves between patients and procedures to avoid contamination. Make sure all gloves and gowns are in good condition without any holes or tears.

• Equipments and Instruments: Needles and sharp instruments must be used carefully while using them on HIV patients. If any of your health care employees gets an accidental cut or prick, immediate treatment should be started. Gloves are essential as they provide protection. Despite wearing gloves, all sharps must be handled with special care and later disposed in a sharps-container.

• Mouth-to-mouth breathing: Sometimes an HIV patient may have a sudden cardiac arrest and require administration of artificial respiration. Even though there is only a negligible chance of spread of the virus through the saliva, it is still good to be careful. There is a greater chance of  transmission  if the patient has developed a wound in the mouth. Your nurses and doctors must wear gloves and give rescue breaths through respiratory devices in such situations.

• Hygiene: Good hygiene habits must be practiced in your health care facility at all times even while dealing with normal patients. Gloves must be donned before treating a patient and afterwards must be taken off carefully and placed in marked containers. Hand washing with antiseptic soap is a must after handling any patient. In the event of any body fluid touching your skin, a disinfectant must be used.

• Injuries: You must make a rule that any health worker with personal injuries like open wounds or broken skin must avoid dealing with such patients. In case they have to, they must properly cover the injured area to decrease the chances of contracting the infection.

HIV infection results in AIDS, which is a fatal disease. There is no absolute cure for it and therefore great emphasis must be given on strictly following precautionary measures to prevent its spread. Other than the above measures, you must keep your health care employees aware of the latest protective measures used. Following these simple universal precautions can save lives and must not be taken lightly.

Underground Electric Dog Fence

An underground electric dog fence is a great way to keep your dog safe from the street or roaming into uninvited areas like your neighbor’s yard. They come in a variety of sizes to fit all dogs: underground fences for little dogs of under 12 lbs, average sized dogs and even large dogs as well as extra wire for larger acres of land. The electric fence can be buried underground, stapled above ground or attached along an existing fence. These fences give precise and consistent correction and some are specifically made for the stubborn dog with strong retriever tendencies or low sensitivity and in need of beeps and stronger vibration for them to get the message.

These underground wired fences work on slopes or in hilly areas, treed lots, in water and acres of land. Their precision and consistent correction capabilities allow for good reliability near busy streets. The variety of collars that are interchangeable make them great for small dogs, like a Chihuahua or a large dog like a Great Dane.

A small indentation or groove made in the pavement is big enough for the wire to be brought beyond the driveway to the extended yard making the dog fence very practical, just backfill the driveway with outdoor sealant. If you don’t want to buy wire get the staples and run the wire above ground. Zip ties can help you secure the wire along an existing fence.

Correction depends upon the dog receiving the   transmission . Therefore, you need to make sure that the receiver collar is the right size for your dog. It should not be smaller than the space of your two fingers between the collar and his neck (we don’t want to choke poor “Pooch”!), but the prongs need to touch the skin of your dog in order for the shock to be felt. Remember, it’s a harmless shock that is meant to catch your dog’s attention and change his current behavior. Long or medium haired dogs may need a scissor cut around the neck area so the prongs will contact the skin. If necessary, there are long pronged collars available for the long haired dog as well.

We love our dogs but, let’s face it, nothing is certain with them for dogs are naturally impulsive. Therefore, even with the underground electric dog fence training is imperative if you want a great chance of solid obedience. We highly recommend training the dog before actually using any system. Flags are available for training the dog to learn the boundary. Take 2-3 weeks, depending on your dog, to walk around the boundary with the flags so “Pooch” can see where the boundary is. Then place the collar on him and walk around with him guiding him to retreat when the signal on the collar transmits a warning. Before you know it, your dog will readily stay within the boundary of the underground electric dog fence without your presence because he won’t know that he can run through it!

3 Nutrition Facts All Coaches Need to Know

Coaches are often the first people to provide any nutritional guidance to athletes. Unfortunately, many coaches are ill-prepared to provide such guidance and, under most state laws, are not authorized to provide nutritional direction. However, when it comes to sports nutrition, many coaches and players simply focus on weight and muscle gain. This “plan” lacks research-based information.

Below are 3 key nutritional facts that all athletes and coaches should be aware of.

· Hydration. Coaches and athletes should all understand the proper hydration entails a lot more than water breaks during practice. Maintaining proper hydration can be complicated based on the intensity of the sport, the environment and each individual. A distinct problematic scenario revolves around the classroom setting. While athletes progress throughout their day, a stop at the water fountain between classes can go a long way towards aiding hydration levels. Poor hydration leads to fatigue, weight loss, and, contrary to popular belief, is the primary culprit behind muscle cramps. Athletes should maintain proper hydration levels throughout the day. During practice in warmer areas (in a gym, outside during spring and summer, etc.) they should drink water incrementally.

· Carbohydrates. Glycogen is the primary fuel source for the body. Carbohydrates are easily turned into glycogen and without enough, you’ll see slow, sluggish performance. Eating an ample amount of carbohydrates throughout the day will replace muscle energy lost in workouts and keep the body from robbing the muscles of protein for energy. A goal for athletes should be to intake about 50 grams of carbohydrates 30 to 45 minutes post-workout. This could include a bagel with peanut butter, a banana and a cup of chocolate milk or a cup of Greek yogurt with a handful of granola. Remember chocolate milk – it’s one of the absolute best post workout drinks you can find.

· Protein. The amount and timing of protein are equally important when an athlete wants to increase muscle mass and strength. Protein builds muscle and repairs muscles damaged during exercise. When an athlete conducts a strenuous workout, tough practice and lengthy games, a large amount of stress is placed on muscles. If total protein consumption is too low, muscles will not be able to properly recover, new muscle will not form, and athletes may experience an increase in soreness, as well as delayed recovery time. Timing: After a workout, practice or game 20 to 30 grams of protein within 30 to 45 minutes post-workout should be consumed. Amount: An athlete intent on increasing muscle mass or strength should intake 1.2 to 1.4 grams of protein per pound of bodyweight in a day. This will ensure enough protein is synthesized to illicit repair and growth of the muscles. As a general rule, 20-30 grams of protein should be eaten at each meal. This will leave time for protein supplementation throughout the day. That level of protein can take the form of a piece of meat the size of a deck of cards, a protein shake or three eggs.

Here are four quick and easy post-practice recovery meals:

– 1 cup vanilla low-fat Greek yogurt with ½ cup granola

– Smoothie with 1 cup vanilla Greek yogurt, 1 cup water and 2 cups frozen blueberries

– Protein shake blended with 1 cup strawberries, 1 cup blueberries and 1 banana

– 3 eggs and 1 cup rolled oats

SWOT Analysis of the New Honda Fuel Cell Vehicle

Honda is changing the vehicle market as we know it, by making a vehicle that emits water vapor. Honda’s FCX Clarity fuel cell car is the new breed for green cars. This car has some similarities to hybrid, but nothing compares to its new fuel source hydrogen. Besides hydrogen it runs with an electric motor that generates electricity to the fuel stack and a lithium ion battery. The lithium ion battery serves as a supplemental power source. The lithium ion battery charges up while braking and decelerating. Some questions might arise when thinking about this new fuel cell vehicle, like what makes this car better than the other hybrid cars? What are the Honda FCX Clarity strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats?

One of the biggest strengths about this new fuel cell vehicle is that it emits water vapor and is designated as a Zero emission vehicle (ZEV). The environmental protection agency (EPA) has given this vehicle the lowest possible emission rating. It also can be driven up to 280 miles before being refueled with hydrogen. FCX Clarity is achieves an energy efficiency of 55% which is twice the energy efficiency of the hybrid vehicles and three times the efficiency of regular gas vehicles. Since FCX Clarity is more energy efficient it has been one of the first fuel cell vehicles to receive certification from the EPA and the California Air Resources Board. Unlike the hybrids the FCX Clarity doesn’t need to be plugged in to be charged up and there is no need for regular gas.

Honda has many opportunities with this new fuel cell vehicle. First off Honda is designing a home refueling station. No more worrying about going out and getting refueled at the pump. Home refueling stations will elevate the stress at the pump. Also, Honda could make this fuel cell vehicle a household name and market this vehicle all over the globe. Honda just needs to get out there to show off their new vehicle. Honda is starting to market the new fuel cell a little bit. Honda has just released the FCX Clarity for Japan.

One of the few weaknesses for this fuel cell vehicle is its limited availability in the United States. Southern California and Japan are the only two areas where this new vehicle is available. Honda plans to release around 200 vehicles in 3 years in California and Japan. Honda believes that this new fuel cell vehicle will be able to be mass produced by 2018. I think this is one Hondas biggest downfall is the limited release and so few refueling stations.

This car is a little small it’s only able to carry four people. The cost of the FCX Clarity is about 600 a month on a 3 year lease. It seems a little steep for someone who is middle class to afford that payment. Not anyone is California will be able to lease this new vehicle. These people who are selected live near the refueling stations and they make a limited amount of commutes.

Basically Toyota and GM vehicles are Hondas biggest threat. With so many new hybrids and small gas efficient cars, this creates a problem for Honda. Another threat is Chevrolet. Chevrolet has developed a fuel cell SUV “the Equinox” and it has already arrived at New York City, Washington D.C. and Southern California. With this being said, it becomes a race between Honda and Chevrolet with the new fuel cell technology. How would the new fuel cell FCX Clarity size up in popularity? The lack of mass production and refueling stations, Honda won’t have a chance.

I think Honda has come up with a good concept car with its new fuel source. The new fuel source needs to be researched further before they should market this vehicle. This car is for people who are willing to go green and have the money to do it. The whole problem is making this car available to the public and easily accessible.

On the other hand Honda has a comparative advantage because of their home refueling station. There is no other vehicle out there that you can just plug in and refuel at home. Hybrid vehicles rely on battery and gas to run. You have to plug the hybrid in to recharge the battery.

Different Forms of Candida and How it Effects Erectile Function?

The Different Forms of Candida

There are 20 different forms of Candida, the most common being Candida Albicans. These microscopic organisms normally live on the surface of our body without causing any kind of infection or disease. However, under certain extraordinary circumstances, the population of these fungi grows so rapidly that they become the agents of yeast infection or Candidiasis. Thrush, diaper rash, nail-bed infection, vaginal yeast infection and pulmonary candidiasis are some diseases caused by Candida. Yeast infection is mostly prevalent in women; men generally contract oral yeast infection. Penile Candidiasis, or yeast infection that affects the erectile function is quite rare.

Under what situations does Candida start effecting erectile function?

Diabetes- Diabetic men usually have elevated sugar levels in their urine. This makes them the ideal candidates for yeast infection of penis. A large amount of sugar in the urine provides a feasible environment for Candida to grow and multiply in the penis and disrupt the erectile function.

Antibiotics- Prolonged use of antibiotic kills the bacterial flora that is typically present in the penis. In the absence of natural flora, the penis becomes susceptible to infection caused by Candida.

Low immunity- Often, conditions like chronic stress, HIV, hypothyroidism and Lyme lower the immunity of the body drastically and make the penis vulnerable to Candida attack.

Sexual transmission- Having sexual intercourse with a woman who has vaginal yeast infection increases the chances of developing penile candidiasis, which can disturb erectile function dramatically.

What are the symptoms of penile yeast infection?

Frequently, penis yeast infection doesn’t affect the erectile function. In such a case, it is very difficult to detect penile candidiasis. The general symptoms of the disease are excessive itching, particularly on the head of the penis, which can lead to irritation, soreness and redness. In severe cases, small blisters might also appear which is accompanied with a clumpy discharge that is white in color.

The bad thing about penile candidiasis is that its symptoms are very similar to that of genital herpes. As soon as you detect the symptoms, contact your physician immediately to ascertain whether erectile dysfunction is caused by penis yeast infection or genital herpes.

What are some remedies to overcome the adverse effects of Candida on erectile function?

The two drugs that are regularly used for the treatment of penis candidiasis are ketaconazole and fluconazole. These medicines produce their own set of side effects. For this reason, natural remedies should also be tried like yogurt, aloe vera, garlic paste, apple cider vinegar. These can be applied on the affected area for instant relief.

In addition to treatment, certain precautions are also necessary. For instance, if you or your partner is nursing a yeast infection of genital organs, it is advisable to practice safe sex. Furthermore, avoid wearing clothes that are tight at your crotch and keep your genital area absolutely clean and moisture free. Besides these, make requisite dietary changes like start taking pro biotic supplements and Vitamin C in your daily diet.

Efficiency of Candida diet against Candida that causes erectile dysfunction

Candida diet can also prove to be quite effective. While following a Candida diet, you have to avoid eating foods that are rich in carbohydrates. Chicken, meat, non-starchy vegetables, shell-fish, and nuts are found to be very helpful in the treatment of a penis yeast infection. Likewise, you should also avoid foods that are a rich source of yeast like bread, mushroom, cheese, tomato paste, vinegar, and so on.

Concluding words

Penis candidiasis is absolutely treatable. Seek medical advice at the onset of the disease, follow the instructions carefully and try to adopt a healthy and hygienic lifestyle. Switch over to a Candida diet and apart from tried and tested medication, try out natural remedies too. Moreover, keep away from all kinds of stresses and tensions. Practice yoga, meditation and other stress management techniques to overcome all the strains and stresses of your life.

Auto Mechanics Curriculum – Preparing for the Job of the Future

While taking driver’s education class in high school, for part of the curriculum, a man insisted his daughter take a basic auto mechanics class. They fought for weeks about this class. It was unnecessary. It was ridiculous. After all, she was a girl. After much verbal sparring, she took the class and enjoyed it, using her knowledge many times.

Years later, it became clear why the man wanted his daughter to take this class. Someday, her car would break down. The auto club would not always be able to come to her aid. Roadside assistance is not always available. Especially when the breakdown occurs in the middle of the desert. A person could wait hours for help. That could be dangerous. It was important to know how to fix the basics on her own.

When she became a parent, and her teenage daughter was ready to learn to drive, it was their turn to fight about taking the class. The mother insisted and her daughter relented. As it turns out, after much arguing, the student really enjoyed it. Since she did not have a “head” for business, or fashion, or mathematics, or English, or any other subject for that matter, it seems the one thing she excelled at was fixing cars.

After taking all of the basic classes the school had to offer, the student’s instructor suggested a transfer to the local high school that offered full vocational technical programs. The transfer took place, and for the next two years she took a number of classes like basic tune-ups and trouble-shooting, tire rotation and balancing, transmission repair, engine repair, fluid transfers for oil changes and transmission fluid, and air conditioning, among others. Upon graduation from high school, the student became a licensed auto mechanic.

For this young lady, that was not enough. She wanted to specialize in foreign cars. That required a whole new set of classes. Thus began her enrollment in the local college vo-tech. Another two years and she earned her A.S. Degree in Auto Mechanics. She was able to fix anything on wheels. However, as with any industry, evolution takes place. The new hybrid vehicles are already on the market, and the electric car is just around the corner. She continues with her education to maintain the high level of expertise necessary for the cars of the future.

Auto mechanic classes can help a student with their future. To become a mechanic, one must learn problem-solving skills. Mechanics is a process. So is life. One cannot put gas in a car that has no engine. Such is the same with life. One step at a time.

For students that struggle in school, vo-tech classes and auto mechanic classes have historically been extremely challenging. Their opportunities for success were once unlike the mother and daughter that both took auto mechanics classes and flourished.